DOI: https://doi.org/10.21897/25394185.1484

Collaborative and individual strategic planning effect on performance of an oral task

Rafael Zaccaron

Resumen


Resumen

Este artículo reporta los hallazgos iniciales de un estudio de maestría en Lingüística Aplicada sobre el efecto que el planeamiento estratégico, colaborativo e individual tiene en el desempeño de una tarea oral en jóvenes estudiantes del inglés como L2 en Brasil. EL planeamiento estratégico (Ellis, 2003, 2005) es un concepto importante dentro del enfoque basado en tareas (TBA), ya que esta condición puede desencadenar procesos meta-cognitivos. Sin embargo, pocos estudios han tenido jóvenes estudiantes de inglés como participantes en la investigación de planeamiento estratégico. Los participantes, estudiantes adolescentes, inscritos en el segundo año de una escuela secundaria pública en Florianópolis (Brasil), realizaron dos tareas mono-lógicas orales bajo dos condiciones de planeación diferentes: (a) colaborativo, y (b) individual. Los mensajes orales enviados usando WhatsApp se analizaron en términos de precisión, fluidez y resultado (pragmático). Además, los participantes completaron cuestionarios después de la realización de cada tarea, con el objetivo de revelar su percepción sobre las condiciones y tareas. En este trabajo, se analizaron los datos del estudio piloto, además de algunos resultados preliminares. A pesar de la ausencia de resultados estadísticamente significativos para la exactitud y fluidez, los resultados indicaron una tendencia que respalda la condición de trabajo colaborativo. Si bien, los datos cualitativos mostraron un fuerte apoyo para la condición de planeamiento colaborativo. Estos hallazgos iniciales, en general, apoyan el uso de tareas orales L2 que involucran el planeamiento estratégico en el contexto de la escuela pública.

Palabras claves: Trabajo colaborativo, planeación estratégica, pre-tareas, tarea oral en segunda lengua; WhatsApp, colegio público.

 

Abstract

This article reports the initial findings of an MA in Applied Linguistics on the effect collaborative and individual strategic planning have on performance of an oral task by young learners of English as an L2 in Brazil. Strategic planning (Ellis, 2003, 2005) is an important concept within the task-based approach (TBA), as this condition may trigger metacognitive processes.Yet, only a few studies have had young learners of English as participants in strategic planning research. The participants, teenage learners,enrolled in the second year of a public high school in Florianópolis (Brazil), performed two monological oral tasks under two different planning conditions: (a) collaborative, and (b) individual. The oral messages sent using WhatsApp were analysed in terms of accuracy, fluency and outcome (pragmatic). In addition, the participants filled in post-task questionnaires after the performance of each task, aiming at unveiling their perception on the conditions and tasks. In this paper, data from the pilot study as well as some preliminary results were analysed. In spite of the absence of statistically significant results for accuracy and fluency, results indicated a trend supporting the collaborative work condition. While, the qualitative data showed strong support for the collaborative planning condition. These initial findings, in general, support the use of L2 oral tasks involving strategic planning in the public school context.

Keywords: Collaborative work, strategic planning; pre-task, L2 oral task; WhatsApp, public school.


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Referencias


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learners’ performance and unveiling learners’ perception in a testing situation (Unpublished

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Performance. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18, 299-323. doi: 10.1017/

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Reasons. Applied Linguistics, v. 21, 354-75. doi: 10.1093/applin/21.3.354

Guará-Tavares, M. G. (2009). The relationship among pre-task planning, working memory capacity

and L2 speech performance: a pilot study. Linguagem& Ensino (UCPel), v. 12, 165-194.

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Capacity. Ilha do Desterro, v.69 (1), 79-94. doi: 10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n1p79.

Haizhen, W. Fangqi, S. (2015). Effects of strategic planning time on L2 paired oral test performance.

Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics (Quarterly). v. 38 (3), 263-276.

Hyde, M. (1993) Pair work – A Blessing or a Curse?: An Analysis of pair work from pedagogical,

cultural, social and psychological perspectives. System, 21 (3), 343-348.

Kormos, J. Préfontaine, Y. (2016) Affective factors influencing fluent performance: French learners

appraisals of second language speech tasks. Language Teaching Research, v. 21 (6), 699-716.

doi:10.1177/1362168816683562

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language awareness. Language Awareness. v.3 (2), 73-93.

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learners’ oral test performance. TESOL Quarterly, v. 49 (1) 38-66.

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learners’ performance’. In M. Bygate, P. Skehan and M. Swain (eds.) Researching Pedagogic

Tasks: Second Language Learning, Teaching and Testing. Addison Wesley Longman. 141-162.

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Ginsberg, R.Kramsch, C. (Eds.). Foreign language research in crosscultural perspective. 39-

Amsterdam: John Benjamin.

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(Eds.), Language policy and pedagogy (179-192). Amsterdam: Benjamins.

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Language Research: methodology and design. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum. 43-99.

Mehnert, U. (1998). The effects of different lengths of time for planning on second language

performance. Studies on second Language Acquisition, 20, 83-108.

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The Routledge Handbook of Instructed Second Language Acquisition. New York: Routledge,

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Acquisition.

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of English as a foreign language. (Unpublished Masters dissertation). Universidade Federal de

Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.

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language acquisition (235–253), Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

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dialogue. In JP Lantolf (ed.) Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning. (97-114).

Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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immersion students working together. The Modern Language Journal, 82, 320–337.

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Type on Learner Output. Language Learning, 61, 37-72. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00642.x

Xhafaj, D. C. P.,Muck, K.E., D’Ely, R.C.S.F. (2011). The impact of individual and peer planning

on the oral performance of advanced learners of English as a foreign language. Linguagem&

Ensino, v. 14, 39-65.

Xhafaj, D. C. P. (2013). One is good, two is better: Investigating the impact of peer-planning in the oral

performance of intermediate L2 English learners. (Unpublished undergraduate dissertation).

Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.

Zaccaron, R., D’Ely, R.C.S.F., Xhafaj, D.C.P. (2018). Estudo piloto: um processo importante de

adaptação e refinamento para uma pesquisa quase experimental em aquisição de l2. Revista do

GELNE, v. 20 (1). doi:10.21680/1517-7874.2018v20n1ID13201In: Ellis, R (Eds.), Planning and task performance in a second language (77-110). Amsterdam

and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Pallotti, G. (2009). CAF: Defining, refining and differentiating constructs. Applied Linguistics, v. 30

(4), 590-601. doi: 10.1093/applin/amp045

Pang, F. Skehan, P. (2014). Self-reported planning behavior and second language performance in

narrative retelling. In: Skehan, P. (Eds.). Processing Perspectives on Task Performance, 95-

Amsterdam: John Benjamins

Schmidt, R. (2001). Attention. In: Robinson, P. (Eds.). Cognition and second language instruction.

(3-32). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Skehan, P. (1996). A Framework for the Implementation of Task-based Instruction. Applied Linguistics.

(1), 38–62. doi: 10.1093/applin/17.1.38.

Skehan, P. (2003). Task-based Instruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Skehan, P. Xiaoyue, B. Qian, L. Wang, Z. (2012). The task is not enough: Processing approaches to

task-based performance. Language Teaching Research. v. 16, 170-187.

Specht, A. (2014). The impact of strategic planning instruction on learner’s accurate oral performance

of English as a foreign language. (Unpublished Masters dissertation). Universidade Federal de

Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.

Storch, N. (2002). Relationships formed in dyadic interaction and opportunity for learning.

International Journal of Educational Research. v. 37, 305–322.

Swain, M. (1985). Communicative Competence: Some roles of Comprehensible Input and

Comprehensible Output in its Development. In S. Gass& C. Madden (Eds.), Input in second

language acquisition (235–253), Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Swain, M. (2000). The output hypothesis and beyond: Mediating acquisition through collaborative

dialogue. In JP Lantolf (ed.) Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning. (97-114).

Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Swain, M. (2001). Integrating language and content teaching through collaborative tasks. The

Canadian Modern Language Review, 58 (1), 44-63.

Swain, M. Lapkin, S. (1998). Interaction and second language learning: Two adolescent French

immersion students working together. The Modern Language Journal, 82, 320–337.

Tavakoli, P., Foster, P. (2011), Task Design and Second Language Performance: The Effect of Narrative

Type on Learner Output. Language Learning, 61, 37-72. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00642.x

Xhafaj, D. C. P.,Muck, K.E., D’Ely, R.C.S.F. (2011). The impact of individual and peer planning

on the oral performance of advanced learners of English as a foreign language. Linguagem&

Ensino, v. 14, 39-65.

Xhafaj, D. C. P. (2013). One is good, two is better: Investigating the impact of peer-planning in the oral

performance of intermediate L2 English learners. (Unpublished undergraduate dissertation).

Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.

Zaccaron, R., D’Ely, R.C.S.F., Xhafaj, D.C.P. (2018). Estudo piloto: um processo importante de

adaptação e refinamento para uma pesquisa quase experimental em aquisição de l2. Revista do

GELNE, v. 20 (1). doi:10.21680/1517-7874.2018v20n1ID13201


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