Viabilidad económica y financiera de sistemas silvopastoriles con Jatropha curcas L. en Manabí, Ecuador

Contenido principal del artículo

Autores

Diana Yasbhet Rade L http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4140-0126 Alvaro Cañadas http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5684-2165 Carlos Zambrano http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6232-0371 Carlos Molina http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4980-2667 Alexandra Ormaza http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9527-5538 Christian Wehenkel http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2341-5458

Resumen

Objetivo. Evaluar la viabilidad económica y financiera de los sistemas silvopastoriles tradicionales para la producción de Biocombustibles como aporte a la sostenibilidad del proyecto “Piñón para Galápagos”. Materiales y Métodos. Se llevaron a cabo encuestas a 450 pequeños productores ganaderos de 10 cantones de la provincia de Manabí con la finalidad de colectar información agronómica, manejo, costos implicados en establecimiento y producción de los sistemas silvopastoriles vigentes de Piñón (Jatropha curcas L.)/Saboya (Megathyrsus maximus). Para recopilar datos de producción del Piñón establecido en cercas vivas de Piñón INIAP CP041 e igualmente se registró la producción de sistemas en 10 sitios, desde el año 2009. Con estos datos se calcularon los siguientes indicadores financieros radio beneficio/costo (B/C), valor actual neto (VAN), tasa interna de retorno (TIR) y valor de expectativa de la tierra (VET). Resultados. El estudio mostró una disminución de la producción del Piñón con el transcurso del tiempo. El sistema silvopastoril mejorado con Piñón INIAP CP041 mostró B/C 1.07, VAN de USD$ 404.11, VET USD$ 970.23 y TIR de 18%. Seguido del sistema silvopastoril con Piñón local con un B/C 1.06, VAN de USD$ 363.66, VET USD$ 873.10 y TIR de 17% y finalmente sistema silvopastoril sin cosecha del Piñón con un B/C 1.05, VAN de USD$ 285.72, VET USD$ 685.99 y TIR de 15%. Conclusiones. La alternativa de producción de biocombustibles con sistemas silvopastoriles Piñón (INIAP CP041)/Saboya en Manabí es el sistema de mayor rentabilidad y no competiría por superficies de cultivo para la producción de alimentos, sin afectar a la seguridad alimentaria.

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