Contenido principal del artículo
AutoresEduardo Toyes-Vargas Miguel Cordoba-Matson José Espinoza-Villavicencio Alejandro Palacio-Espinosa Bernardo Murillo-Amador
Objective. The objective of the study was to determine the composition of fatty acids in milk of Creole goats in an extensive production system in an arid region of the peninsula of Baja California and compare it to two seasons of the year (rainy and dry). Materials and methods. Sampling was conducted during the dry season (June) and after the rainy season (December) in the municipality of Comondú in Baja California Sur. The extensive production system used involved releasing goats to roam freely in the rangeland to graze for food, and no additional food or supplements were provided. Results. The most abundant fatty acids were saturated fatty acids (66.3 and 70.9% in the rainy and dry reasons, respectively). The most abundant of these were palmitic, myristic, and stearic acid in both seasons. Monounsaturated fatty acids (15-20%) were the most numerous in terms of isomers, but mostly in low concentrations. The largest average constituent of polyunsaturated fatty acids (5-6%) was linoleic acid (3%) and alpha-linolenic acid (1.2%) in both seasons. Branched, fatty acid concentrations were highly variable; the only stable constituents were C15:0 iso (1.5%) and C16:0 anti-iso, with 0.7% of total fatty acids. Conclusions. The seasons in this extensive production system significantly effected the composition of most monounsaturated and branched fatty acids in goat milk; however, saturated and polyunsaturated showed only a few compositional changes in abundance of fatty acids. Moreover, season effects were not significant on the total fatty acid content, except for branched fatty acids and omega-3.
Detalles del artículo
Esta obra está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-CompartirIgual 4.0 Internacional.
2. Haenlein GFW. Goat milk in human nutrition. Small Ruminant Res 2004; 51:155-163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2003.08.010
3. Jacobs MN, Covaci A, Gherghe A, Schepen P. Time trend investigation of PCBs, PBDEs and organochlorine pesticides in selected n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich dietary fish oil and vegetable oil supplements; nutritional relevance for human essential n-3 fatty acid requirements. J Agric Food Chem 2004; 52:1780-1788. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf035310q
4. Martínez A. Influencia de la nutrición sobre el contenido y tipo de ácidos grasos en la carne de los rumiantes. Arch Zootec 2007; 56:45-66.
5. FAO/WHO. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Report of a Joint FAO/OMS Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series; 2003.
6. Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Geografia (INEGI) Sistemas Nacionales Estadísticos y de Información Geográfica. Mexico: INEGI; 2006. URL Disponible en: www.inegi.com.mx
7. Bligh EG, Dyer WJ. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol 1959; 37:911-917. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/o59-099
8. Marsh JB, Weinstein DB Simple charring method for determination of lipids. J Lipid Res 1966; 1:574-576.
9. Lock AL, Shingfield KJ. Optimising milk composition. In: Kebreab E, Mills J, Beever DE, editors. Dairying using science to meet consumers needs. Loughborough, United Kingdom: Editorial Nottingham University Press; 2004.
10. Moate P, Chalupa W, Boston RC, Lean IJ. Milk fatty acids. I. Variation in the concentration of individual fatty acids in bovine milk. J Dairy Sci 2007; 90:4730-4739. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0225
11. Vlaeminck B, Fievez V, Tamminga S, Dewhurst RJ, Van Vuuren A, De Brabander D, Demeyer D. Milk odd and branched chain fatty acids in relation to the rumen fermentation pattern. J Dairy Sci 2006; 89:3954-3964. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72437-7
12. Jenkins TC. Lipid metabolism in the rumen. J Dairy Sci 1993; 76:3851-3863. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77727-9
13. Loor JJ, Ueda K, Ferlay A, Chilliard Y, Doreau M. Biohydrogenation, duodenal flow, and intestinal digestibility of trans fatty acid and conjugated linoleic acids in response to dietary forage:concentrate ratio and linseed oil in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 2004; 87:2472-2485. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73372-X
14. Elgersma A, Ellen G, Dekker PR, Van der Horst H, Boer H, Tamminga S. Effects of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) cultivars with different linolenic acid contents on milk fatty acid composition. Asp Appl Biol 2003; 70:107-114.
15. Martínez-Castro I, Juárez M, Martin-Álvarez J. The composition of fatty acids of milk fat in Spain. Milchwissenschaft. 1979; 34:207-210.
16. Pinto M, Rubillar A, Carrasco E, An-Hen KS, Brito C, Molina L. Efecto estacional y del área geográfica en la composición de ácidos grasos en la leche de bovinos. Agro Sur 2002; 30:75-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.4206/agrosur.2002.v30n2-09
17. Eastridge M, Qiu X. Conjugated linoleic acid in milk from cows on pasture. Department of Animal Sciences. Ohio State University. Agricultural Research and Development Center. Ohio, United States: 2001.
18. Freund, G. (Ed.). Goat milk quality, raw material for cheesemaking. Surgéres, France: Institut Technique des Produits Laitiers Caprins; 2001.
19. Chilliard Y, Rouel J, Ferlay A, Bernard L, Gaborit P, Raynal- Ljutovac K, Lauret A. Effects of type of forage and lipid supplementation on goat milk fatty acids and sensorial properties of cheeses. Future of the sheep and goat dairy sectors. Zaragoza, Spain: Special issue of the International Dairy Federation; 2005.
20. Delgadillo-Puga C, Cuchillo-Hilario M, Perez-Gil F. Effect of feeding management and seasonal variation on fatty acid composition of Mexican soft raw goats milk cheese. Ital J Anim Sci 2009; 8:402-404. http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2009.s2.402
21. Diedrich M, Henschel KP. The natural occurrence of unusual fatty acids. 1. Odd numbered fatty acids. Nahrung 1990; 34:935-943. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/food.19900341020
22. Rojas A, Lopezbote C, Rota A, Martin L, Rodriguez PL, Tovar JJ. Fatty acid composition of Verata goat kids fed either goat milk or commercial milk replacer. Small Rumin Res 1994; 14:61–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0921-4488(94)90011-6
23. Massart-Leën AM, De Pooter H, Decloedt M, Schamp N. Composition and variability of the branched chain fatty acid fraction in the milk of goats and cows. Lipids 1981; 16:286-292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02534951
24. Shingfield KJ, Reynolds CK, Lupoli B, Toivonen V, Yurawecz MP, Delmonte P, Griinari JM, Grandison AS, Beever DE. Effect of forage type and proportion of concentrate in the diet on milk fatty acid composition in cows given sunflower and fish oil. Anim Sci 2005; 80:225-238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/ASC41820225
25. Cranix M, Steen A, Van Laar H, Van Nespen T, Martin-Teroso J, De Baets B, Fievez V. Effect of lactation stage on the odd and branched chain milk fatty acids of dairy cattle under grazing and indoor conditions. J Dairy Sci 2008; 91:2662-2677. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0656