Genetic variability of broodstocks of restocking programs in Brazil

Contenido principal del artículo

Autores

Nelson Lopera-Barrero Ed Lima Luiz Filho Elenice Goes Pedro Castro Aline Zardin Angela Poveda-Parra Ricardo Ribeiro

Resumen

ABSTRACT

Objective. The aim of this study was evaluate the genetic diversity of the following broodstocks: piapara (Leporinus elongatus), dourado (Salminus brasiliensis), jundiá (Rhamdia quelen) and cachara (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum) already useful for restocking programs in the Paranapanema, Iguaçu and Paraná Brazilian Rivers. Materials and methods. Samples from the caudal fin of 122 fish were analyzed. DNA was extracted by NaCl protocol. PCR products were separated by a horizontal agarose gel electrophoresis. The fragments were visualized by staining with ethidium bromide. Results. The amplification of 25 primers generated different fragments in studied species that allowed characterizing 440 fragments of 100-2900 bp. High percentage of polymorphic fragments (66.67 to 86.29), Shannon index (0.365 to 0.486) and genetic diversity of Nei (0.248 to 0.331) were detected. Conclusions. The level of genetic variability in the broodstocks was adequate for allowing their use in restocking programs in the studied Rivers. However, periodical monitoring studies of genetic variability in these stocks, the mating system, reproductive system and general management must be made to guarantee the preservation of wild populations.

RESUMEN

Objetivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la diversidad genética de los siguientes lotes de reproductores: piapara (Leporinus elongatus), dourado (Salminus brasiliensis), jundiá (Rhamdia quelen) y cachara (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum) utilizados para programas de repoblación en los ríos brasileños Paranapanema, Iguaçu y Paraná. Materiales y métodos. Muestras de aleta caudal de 122 peces fueron analizadas. El ADN fue extraído por el protocolo de NaCl. Los productos de PCR fueron separados por electroforesis horizontal en gel de agarosa. Los fragmentos fueron visualizados por marcación con bromuro de etidio. Resultados. La amplificación de los 25 iniciadores produjo diferentes fragmentos en las especies estudiadas que permitieron caracterizar 440 fragmentos de 100 a 2900 pb. Fueron detectados un alto porcentaje de fragmentos polimórficos (66.67 a 86.29), de índice de Shannon (0.365 a 0.486) y de diversidad genética de Nei (0.248 a 0.331). Conclusiones. El nivel de variabilidad genética en los lotes de reproductores fue adecuado para su utilización en programas de repoblación en los ríos estudiados. Sin embargo, estudios de monitoreo periódico de la variabilidad genética en esos lotes, del sistema de cruzamiento, del sistema reproductivo y del manejo general deben ser realizados para garantizar la preservación de las populaciones naturales.

 


Palabras clave:

Detalles del artículo

Referencias

1. Fao - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO yearbook. Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics, 2010. Rome, 2013.

2. Mpa - Ministério da Pesca e Aquicultura. Boletim Estatístico da Pesca e Aquicultura, 2011. Brasília, 2013.

3. Fao - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO yearbook. Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics, 2009. Rome, 2011.

4. Lopera-Barrero NM, Ribeiro RP, Povh JA, Vargas-Mendez LD, Poveda-Parra AR. Produção de Organismos Aquáticos: uma visão geral no Brasil e no mundo. Guaíba: Agrolivros; 2011.

5. Crepaldi DV, Faria PMC, Teixeira EA, Ribeiro LP, Costa AAP, Melo DC. O surubim na aquacultura do Brasil. Rev Bras Reprod Anim 2006; 30:150-158.

6. Graça WJ, Pavanelli CS. Peixes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná e áreas adjacentes. Maringá: EDUEM; 2007.

7. Kutter MT, Bemvenuti MA, Moresco A. Feeding strategy of the jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Siluriformes, Heptapteridae) in costal lagoons of southern Brazil. Acta Sci Biol Sci 2009; 31:41-47.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.335

8. Gomes PC, Ribeiro RP, Lopera-Barrero NM, Povh JA, Vargas L, Sirol RN. Diversidade genética de três estoques de piapara (Leporinus elongatus), utilizando RAPD. Acta Sci Anim Sci 2008; 30:241-247. http://dx.doi.org/10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4710

9. Agostinho AA, Pelicice FM, Gomes LC. Dams and the fish fauna of the Neotropical region: impacts and management related to diversity and fisheries. Braz J Biol 2008; 68:1119-1132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842008000500019

10. Ramos JVB, Sodré LMK, Orsi ML, Almeida FS. Genetic diversity of the species Leporinus elongatus (Teleostei: Characiformes) in the Canoas Complex - Paranapanema River. Neotrop Ichthyol 2012; 10:821-828. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252012000400015

11. Lopera Barrero NM. Conservation of Brycon orbignyanus natural populations and stocks for their reproductive, genetic, environmental sustainability: A model for species threatened with extinction. Cienc Inv Agr 2009; 36:191-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-16202009000200004

12. Povh JA, Ribeiro RP, Sirol RN, Streit JR DP, Moreira HLM, Siewerdt F et al. Microsatellite Analysis of the Parental Contribution of Piaractus mesopotamicus to the Production of Offspring in the Semi-natural System of Reproduction. Braz Arch Biol Technol 2010; 53:389-396. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132010000200018

13. Kalinowski ST, Doornik DMV, Kozfkay CC, Waples RS. Genetic diversity in the Snake River sockeye salmon captive broodstock program as estimated from broodstock records. Conserv Genet 2012; 13:1183-1193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10592-012-0363-9

14. Gomes PC, Ribeiro RP, Sirol RN, Lopera Barrero NM, Moreira HLM, Povh JA et al. Diversidade genética de dourado utilizado em programas de repovoamento no rio Paranapanema. Pesq Agropec Bras 2011; 46:167-173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2011000200008

15. Lopera Barrero NM, Povh JA, Fornari DC, Rodriguez Rodriguez M del P, Santos SCA, Ribeiro RP. Genetic diversity of Prochilodus lineatus stocks using in the stocking program of Tietê River, Brazil. Rev MVZ Córdoba 2013; 18:3759-3766.

16. Lopera-Barrero NM, Povh JA, Ribeiro RP, Gomes PC, Jacometo CB, Lopes TS. Comparison of DNA extraction protocols of fish fin and larvae samples: modified salt (NaCl) extraction. Cienc Inv Agr 2008a; 35:65-74.

17. Yeh FC, Boyle TYZ, Xiyan JM. POPGENE Version 131: Microsoft Window-based freeware for population genetic analysis. (Consulta en internet) Alberta (Accesado mayo de 2014). 1999. URL Disponible en: http://www.ualberta.ca/~fyeh/popgene.pdf.

18. Telles MPC, Monteiro MSR, Rodrigues FM, Soares TN, Resende LV, Amaral AG et al. Marcadores RAPD na análise de divergência genética entre raças de bovinos e número de locos necessários para a estabilidade da divergência estimada. Cien Anim Bras 2001; 2:87-95.

19. Lidani KCF, Lima JR, Torres RA, Gabriel JE, Madeira HMF, Carneiro PCF. Variabilidade genética de um estoque cativo de Jundiá (Rhamdia quelen). Rev Acad 2006; 4:47-53.

20. Lopes CM, Almeida FS, Orsi ML, Britto SGC, Sirol RN, Sodré LMK. Fish passage ladders from Canoas Complex – Paranapanema River: evaluation of genetic structure maintenance of Salminus brasiliensis (Teleostei: Characiformes). Neotrop Ichthyol 2007; 5:131-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252007000200006

21. Kang JH, Noh JK, Kim JH, Lee JH, Kim HC, Kim KK et al. Genetic relationship between broodstocks of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck and Schlegel) using microsatellite markers. Aqua Res 2006; 37:701-707. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2006.01483.x

22. Lopera Barrero NM, Ribeiro RP, Povh JA, Gomes PC, Vargas L, Oliveira SN. Caracterización genética de lotes de peces usados en programas de repoblamiento y su importancia en la conservación genética en la piscicultura. Zootecnia Trop 2008b; 26:515-522.

23. Gomes PC, Lopera Barrero NM, Vargas L, Streit Jr DP, Povh JA, Sirol RN et al. Genetic diversity of Salminus brasiliensis (Characiformes: Characidae) collected in the passage ladder of the Canoas I hydropower plant in the Paranapanema River, Brazil. Semin-Cienc Agrar 2013; 34:1421-1432. http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2013v34n3p1421
http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2013v34n3p1421-1432

24. Marie D, Bernatchez L, Garant D. Loss of genetic integrity correlates with stocking intensity in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis). Mol Ecol 2010; 19:2025-2037. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04628.x

25. Machado-Schiaffino G, Dopico E, Garcia-Vazquez E. Genetic variation losses in Atlantic salmon stocks created for supportive breeding. Aquacult 2007; 264:59-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.12.026

26. Lopera-Barrero NM, Vargas L, Sirol RN, Ribeiro RP, Povh JA, Mangolin CA. Caracterização genética de Brycon orbignyanus utilizando o sistema seminatural. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 2010; 62:184-191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-09352010000100025

27. Lopera-Barrero NM, Reyez Alvarez CA, Rodriguez-Rodriguez MP, Povh JA, Vargas L, Streit Jr DP et al. Diversidade genética e paternidade de progênies de Brycon orbignyanus obtidas por diferentes sistemas reprodutivos. Semin-Cienc Agrar 2014; 35:541-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2014v35n1p541

28. Almeida FS, Lopes CM, Orsi ML, Sirol RN, Sodré LMK. Genetic monitoring by RAPD markers for repopulation programs of Salminus brasiliensis (Pisces, Characiformes). Acta Sci Anim Sci 2013; 35:119-126. http://dx.doi.org/10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.15904

29. Rodriguez-Rodriguez MP, Lopera Barrero NM, Ribeiro RP, Povh JA, Vargas L, Sirol RN et al. Diversidad genética de piracanjuba usada en programas de repoblación con marcadores microsatélites. Pesq Agropec Bras 2010; 45:53-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2010000100008

30. Gonzáles-Wangüemert M, Fernández TV, Pérez-Rufaza A, Giacalone M, D'anna G, Badalamenti F. Genetic considerations on the introduction of farmed fish in marine protected areas: The case of study of white seabream restocking in the Gulf of Castellammare (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea). J Sea Res 2012; 28:41-48.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seares.2011.12.005

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.