Virus del oeste del Nilo: perspectivas en el mundo vertebrado

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Autores

José Peña Luís Berrocal Marco González César Ponce Katiuska Ariza Salim Máttar

Resumen

El virus del Oeste del Nilo (VON) pertenece a la familia Flaviviridae, género Flavivirus, es transmitido por artrópodos en un ciclo que involucra a mosquitos y aves. Por muchas décadas había sido reconocido en África, Asia y el sur de Europa. El virus apareció por primera vez en Estados Unidos en año de 1999 y se ha documentado su circulación en México, Islas Caimán, Jamaica, República Dominicana, Martinica, Guadalupe, Cuba, Puerto Rico, El Salvador y Colombia. Sólo recientemente fue asociado con un creciente número de brotes de encefalitis en humanos y equinos, además de infecciones en vertebrados de una gran variedad de especies. Muchos animales, incluyendo más de 150 especies de aves y al menos 30 vertebrados de otras especies son susceptibles a la infección por VON. El resultado de las infecciones depende de la especie, la edad del animal, su estado inmune y la patogenicidad de la cepa del virus. La infección ocurre en aves, como passeriformes, pollos jóvenes y gansos domésticos, lo que resulta en altos títulos de viremia que permite la transmisión a los artrópodos. Está menos caracterizado el rol de los vertebrados en la transmisión indirecta, como por órganos contaminados, tejidos o excreciones. La creciente importancia de la infección por VON ha conducido al desarrollo de vacunas veterinarias con virus muertos, atenuados, quiméricos y vacunas de ADN recombinante. En esta revisión se discute en forma general la importancia de infección por VON en vertebrados, su rol en medicina veterinaria y su posible impacto en salud animal por su reciente introducción a Colombia.

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