The efficacy of chloroquine treatment against naturally occuring Giardia duodenalis infection in lambs

Contenido principal del artículo

Autores

Umit Karademir Kerem Ural Nuran Aysul Adnan Ayan Songul Toplu Onur Ortlek Canberk Balıkci Ahmet Kunyeli Hasan Erdogan

Resumen

Objective. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of Chloroquine (Cq), an antimalarial medicine, administered at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg, orally, during 5 consecutive days, in Sakiz and Merino lambs naturally infected with Giardia duodenalis. Materials and methods. To this extent weaned 10 weeks of aged lambs were enrolled and randomly assigned into two groups based on treatment (group C, n=18 lambs treated with Cq) and placebo (group P, n=8 untreated control animals). Diagnosis was based on detection of trophozoit and/or cysts on fecal flotation. Cyst count per gram feces (days 0, 3, 7 and 10) was analyzed among groups. Results. During the trial, regarding the efficacy of Cq on days 3., 7., and 10. There was significant (p<0.01) reduction in cyst excretion; whereas evaluation of mean geometric cyst excretion revealed 100% reduction. Conclusions. There was a very high (100%) reduction in cyst excretion in the Cq treatment group compared to the positive untreated control group on days 3, 7 and 10, resulting in a significant (p<0.001) reduction, making Cq, safety, and thus highly effective treatment option of lambs with naturally occuring giardiasis.

Objetivo. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la eficacia de la cloroquina, un medicamento contra la malaria, administrado a una dosis de 2.5 mg/kg, por vía oral, durante 5 días consecutivos, en Corderos Sakiz y Merino infectados naturalmente con Giardia duodenalis. Materiales y metodos. En esta medida destetados 10 semanas de edad fueron incluidos y asignados al azar en dos grupos sobre la base del tratamiento (grupo C, n = 18 corderos tratados con cloroquina) y placebo (grupo P, n = 8 animales de control no tratados). El diagnóstico se basa en la detección de trophozoit y/o quistes en la flotación fecal. Quiste recuento por gramo de heces (día 0, 3, 7 y 10) se analizó entre los grupos. Resultados. Respecto a la eficacia de la cloroquina en los días 3, 7 y 10 existió una reducción significativa (p<0.01) en la excreción de quistes; mientras que la evaluación de la media de la excreción Rev.MVZ Córdoba 21(2):5328-5335, 2016. ISSN: 0122-0268 ORIGINAL 5329 de quistes reveló una reducción del 100%. Conclusiones. Durante el estudio hubo una reducción del 100% en la excreción de quistes en el grupo de tratamiento con cloroquina en comparación con el grupo control no tratado positivo en los días 3, 7 y 10, lo que resulta en una disminución significativa (p<0.001) por lo que la cloroquina razonablemente es una opción de tratamiento por el costo, seguridad, y por lo tanto muy eficaz de corderos infectados naturalmente con giardiasis.

Palabras clave:

Detalles del artículo

Referencias

1. Castro−Hermida JA, Pors I, Poupin B, Ares-Mazás E, Chartier C. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium parvum in goat kids in western France. Small Rumin Res 2005; 56:259−264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2004.06.007

2. Fayer R, Santín M, Trout JM, Greiner E. Prevalence of species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium found in 1−2-year-old dairy cattle in the eastern United States. Vet Parasitol 2006; 135:105−112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2005.08.003

3. Xiao L. Giardia infection in farm animals Parasitol. Today 1994; 10:436−438. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0169-4758(94)90178-3

4. Thompson R.C. Thompson Giardiasis as a re-emerging infectious disease and its zoonotic potential. Int J Parasitol 2000; 30:1259−1267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7519(00)00127-2

5. Hunter PR, Thompson RCA. The zoonotic transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Int J Parasitol 2005; 35:1181−1190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2005.07.009

6. Ozmen O, Yukari BA, Haligur M, Sahinduran S. Observations and immunohistochemical detection of coronavirus, cryptosporidium parvum and giardia intestinalis in neonatal diarrhoea in lambs and kids. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2006; 148:357-364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0036-7281.148.7.357

7. Ozdal N, Tanritanir P, Goz Y, Deger S, Kozat S. Parasitic protozoans (Eimeria, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium) in lambs with diarrhoea in the Van Province (Turkey). Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2009; 53:47-51.

8. Robertson LJ. Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections in sheep and goats: A review of the potential for transmission to humans via environmental contamination. Epidemiol Infect 2009; 137:913−921. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268809002295

9. Geurden T, Vercruysse J, Claerebout E. Is Giardia a significant pathogen in production animals?. Exp Parasitol 2009; 124:98−106.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2009.03.001

10. Geurden T, Pohleb H, Sarrea C, Dreesena L, Vercruyssea J, Claerebouta E. The efficacy of a treatment with fenbendazole against an experimental Giardia duodenalis infection in lambs. Small Rum Res 2011; 96(2−3):211−215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2010.12.004

11. Aloisio F, Filippini G, Antenucci P, Lepri E, Pezzotti G, Cacciò MS, et al. Severe weight loss in lambs infected with Giardia duodenalis assemblage. B Vet Parasitol 2006; 142(1−2):154−158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.06.023

12. Mohammed BA. Efficacy of albendazole with two different doses for the treatment of giardiasis in domestic ruminants. Iraq J Vet Sci 2006; 20(2):265-282.

13. Alιç Ural D, Ayan A, Aysul N, Balιkçι C, Ural K. Secnidazol Treatment to Improve Milk Yield in Sheep with Giardiasis. Atatürk Üniversitesi Vet. Bil. Derg. 2014; 9(2): 74-82.

14. Ural K, Aysul N, Voyvoda H, Ulutas B, Aldemir OS, Eren H. Single dose of secnidazole treatment against naturally occuring Giardia duodenalis infection in Sakiz lambs. Rev MVZ Cordoba 2014; 19(1):4023-4032.

15. Albay MK, Sahinduran S, Adanir R, Yukari BA, Kose O. Efficacy of albendazole and two different doses of paromomycin for treatment of naturally occurring giardia infection in lambs. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg 2011; 17:1021-1024.

16. Escobedo AA, Cimerman S. Giardiasis: A pharmacotherapy review. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2007; 8:1885−1902. http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/14656566.8.12.1885

17. Pérez MA, Cortés LJ, Guerra AP, Knudson A, Usta C, Nicholls RS. Efficacy of the amodiaquine + sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination and of chloroquine for the treatment of malaria in Cárdoba, Colombia, 2006. Biomedica 2008; 28:148−159. http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v28i1.699

18. van Tuyl LH, Lems WF, Voskuyl AE, Kerstens PJ, Garnero P, Dijkmans BA. Tight control and intensified COBRA combination treatment in early rheumatoid arthritis: 90% remission in a pilot trial. Ann Rheum Dis 2008; 67:1574−1577. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ard.2008.090712

19. Egan TJ, Ncokazi KK. Quinoline antimalarials decrease the rate of β-hematin formation. J Inorg Biochem 2005; 99: 1532-1539. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2005.04.013

20. Wilson JM, Hankerson FC. Evaluation of an inhouse rapid ELISA test for detection of Giardia in domestic sheep (Ovis aries). JAALAS 2009; 49(6):809-813.

21. Escobedo AA, Ca-ete R, Gonzalez ME, Pareja A, Cimerman S, Almirall P. A randomized trial comparing mebendazole and secnidazole for the treatment of giardiasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2003; 97(5):499-504. http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/000349803235002380

22. Gordts B, Hemelhof W, Asselman C, Butzler J. In vitro susceptibilities of 25 Giardia lamblia isolates of human origin to six commonly used anti-protozoal agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1985; 28:378−80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.28.3.378

23. Baveja UK, Bathia VN, Warhurst DC. Giardia lamblia: in-vitro sensitivity to some chemotherapeutic agents. J Communicable Dis 1998; 30:79−84.

24. Escobedo AA, Nú-ez FA, Moreira I, Vega E, Pareja A, Almirall P. Comparison of chloroquine, albendazole and tinidazole in the treatment of children with giardiasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2003; 97(4):367-371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/000349803235002290

25. Ca-ete R, Rivas DE, Escobedo AA, González ME, Almirall P, Brito KA. randomized, controlled, open-label trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of chloroquine in the treatment of giardiasis in children. West Indian Med J 2010; 59(6):607-611.

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.