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José David Herazo Rivera http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8038-868X Tatiana Becerra Posada http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3156-6907


In 2016, the Colombian Ministry of Education (MEN) launched the English as Foreign Language (EFL) curriculum for secondary schools (grades 6 through 11). This curriculum suggests using task-based language teaching (TBLT), project-based instruction (PBI), and problem-based learning (PBL) for teaching EFL at secondary schools in Colombia (Ministerio de Educación Nacional, 2016a). In 2016, the Ministry also launched an EFL primary school curriculum (grades pre-K through 5), including content and language integrated learning (CLIL) within the suggested teaching approaches (Ministerio de Educación Nacional, 2016b). The suggested curricula for primary and secondary schools are the latest effort within the National Bilingualism Program, which started in 2004, to improve EFL instruction in Colombia. The program’s goal was that Colombian 11 graders reached B1 proficiency level (Ministerio de Educación Nacional, 2005) by 2019.  A learner at this level is expected to be able to achieve a variety of language functions, such as understanding and producing texts on familiar topics,  asking for directions, asking and giving personal information, describing personal experiences,  giving opinions or describing future plans.

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