Cambios fisiológicos y mecanismos genéticos asociados a la marchitez vascular causada por Fusarium en tomate: una revisión actualizada

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Autores

Sandra L. Carmona https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7348-3566 Andrea Villarreal-Navarrete https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9580-6936 Diana Burbano-David https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0109-3088 Mauricio Soto-Suárez https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2392-2839

Resumen

El cultivo de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum), una de las hortalizas más cultivadas en el mundo, se enfrenta a diferentes patógenos del suelo que afectan su morfología, fisiología, bioquímica y regulación genética de las plantas. El hongo fitopatógeno Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.  lycopersici  (Fol) agente causal de la marchitez vascular del tomate causa pérdidas superiores al 60% en este cultivo. En esta revisión se presentan los mecanismos fisiológicos, bioquímicos y moleculares desarrollados en la interacción tomate – Fol. La co-evolución entre plantas y patógenos ha facilitado el desarrollo de mecanismos de defensa en las plantas que les permite protegerse frente a los efectos nocivos de la invasión por parte del patógeno, mientras que los patógenos implementan estrategias para imponerse frente a la resistencia de las plantas. Las consecuencias fisiológicas del ataque por Fol incluyen respuestas al déficit hídrico, regulaciones en la conductancia estomática, cambios en la fotosíntesis, así como alteraciones en los contenidos de clorofila y su fluorescencia. Estos cambios pueden ser explicados, en parte, con base en respuestas oxidativas, producción de metabolitos secundarios y activación de vías de señalización hormonales que hacen parte de una compleja red bioquímica activada tras la infección por el patógeno.

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