Desarrollo de marcadores moleculares para la identificación de especies de Eucalyptus


Hernando Javier Rivera Jiménez
Bruno C. Rossini
Vanusa do S. Leiter
Paulo H Da Silva
Celso L. Marino

Uno de los principales problemas que enfrentan los programas de mejoramiento genético en eucaliptos es la dificultad para identificar las especies e híbridos. El objetivo de este estudio fue encontrar marcadores moleculares asociados a cinco especies de Eucalyptus (E. saligna, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis and E. brassiana), mediante marcadores AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) y BSA (Bulk Segregant Analysis), para su uso en programas de mejoramiento genético en Brasil. En 33 combinaciones de cebadores, se obtuvo un total de 868 fragmentos polimórficos, que representan un 91,65% del polimorfismo. Las mejores combinaciones que muestran potenciales marcadores para la identificación de especies, fueron encontradas en los cebadores M+GGT/E+ACC, que estuvo un 70% de los individuos asociados a la especie E. urophylla. Sin embargo, la combinación de cebadores compuesta de M+GGA/E+ACC identificó el 60% de individuos en la especie E. saligna; la combinación de los cebadores M+GTC/E +AAC, confirmó dos marcas, una en 60% y la otra en 50% para la identificación de individuos de la especie E. grandis. El tratamiento compuesto por los cebadores M+GGC/E+AAA, confirmó un 30% de los individuos perteneciente a la especie E. brassiana, siendo igual para la combinación de cebadores M+GGC/E+ACC, identificando el 30% de los individuos de la especie E. tereticornis. El análisis AFLP en asocio a BSA proporcionan una herramienta rápida para la identificación de cultivares en Eucalyptus, a la vez de que puede ser usados en los programas de mejoramiento genético forestal.

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