Ácido abscísico y sacarosa afectan la formación in vitro de túberos en plantas de ñame (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.)


Isidro Elias Suárez Padrón
Rafael Otero

El túbero de ñame (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) es una de las principales fuentes alimenticias de los pobladores de la Costa Atlántica Colombiana y la cuenca del Caribe, y su demanda ha aumentado en el mercado internacional en los últimos años; sin embargo, las técnicas convencionales de cultivo afectan la cantidad y calidad de la producción. Con el fin de ofrecer mecanismos de producción de material de siembra de ñame de buena calidad, se evaluó el efecto de tres concentraciones de sacarosa y cuatro niveles de ácido abscísico en la producción in vitro de microtúberos a partir de explantes nodales. Los tratamientos se distribuyeron con un diseño completamente al azar con ocho repeticiones por tratamiento. El análisis de varianza y la prueba de media de Duncan indicaron que tanto las variables del crecimiento de las plantas como el número de microtúberos mostraron diferencias significativas (Pr<0,05) como resultado de los niveles de ABA/sacarosa, una dosis de 60 g L-1 de sacarosa combinada con 3,0 mg L-1 de ABA indujo el mayor número de microtúberos, mientras que las plantas cultivadas en presencia de 90 g L-1 de sacarosa formaron mayor número de tallos, hojas y raíces.

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